Ahmedabad has seen ~100 communal riots since 1947. Lucknow only 1. Why?

Ahmedabad has seen ~100 communal riots since 1947. Lucknow only 1. Why?

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India is no stranger to communal violence. Yet, there are significant variations across the country that leads to some striking puzzles. What explains high communal violence in some cities and not in others? And what role does communal segregation play?

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0. Introduction
https://theprint.in/opinion/are-communal-riots-a-new-thing-in-india-yes-and-it-started-with-the-british/374458/
https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/responses/british-rule-and-hindu-muslim-riots-in-india-a-reassessment
https://thediplomat.com/2019/03/the-origins-of-hindu-muslim-conflict-in-south-asia/
https://www.reddit.com/r/MapPorn/comments/5ax1mz/deaths_in_notable_incidents_of_communal_violence/
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/1-Ten-Communally-Most-Violent-Cities-in-Terms-of-Persons-Killed-in-India-during_tbl1_305444273
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/af76/9dc15a41ef7188d82441afb2e266ca925a68.pdf?_ga=2.158540474.104586886.1587885137-1708662319.1586000784
https://www.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/hindu-muslim-communal-riots-india-i-1947-1986.html
http://www.nagarikmancha.org/images/1242-Documents-Communal_Riots_in_India.pdf
http://www.manushi-india.org/pdfs_issues/PDF%20files%2074-75/the_nightmare_of_surat.pdf
https://items.ssrc.org/from-our-archives/understanding-gujarat-violence/

1. What is segregation?
http://www.lse.ac.uk/international-development/Assets/Documents/PDFs/csrc-working-papers-phase-two/wp64.2-civil-society-in-conflict-cities.pdf
https://indianexpress.com/article/coronavirus/ahmedabad-covid-19-coronavirus-hospital-ward-6363040/
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/even-water-in-india-had-a-religion/article26611705.ece
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-cities-ghettos/no-muslims-no-single-women-housing-bias-turning-indian-cities-into-ghettos-idUSKBN15726C
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/no-vacancy-for-muslims-in-indias-capital_b_839756
https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/they-said-we-dont-give-flats-to-muslims-alleges-25-year-old-woman-in-mumbai-766353
https://scroll.in/article/730409/how-bias-against-muslim-flat-seekers-came-to-be-entrenched-in-indias-most-cosmopolitan-city
https://sites.duke.edu/ericafield/files/2018/02/Segregation-Rent-Control-Riots.pdf
https://theprint.in/opinion/why-lucknow-jaipur-dont-see-communal-riots-but-delhi-and-ahmedabad-do/380171/

2. Case: Ahmedabad
https://ahmedabadmirror.indiatimes.com/others/sunday-read/fifty-years-on-riot-that-tore-gujarats-fabric-of-unity/articleshow/71130444.cms
https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/the-juhapura-model/
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-30204806
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0308518X17696071
https://caravanmagazine.in/policy/the-gujarat-state-is-enforcing-communal-segregation-and-criminalising-property-transfers
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/people-are-leaving-congress-because-its-leadership-is-weak-vijay-rupani/articleshow/70412868.cms?from=mdr
https://www.ft.com/content/62e72d98-39a3-11e4-93da-00144feabdc0#axzz3KiXQFUmx

3. Case: Lucknow
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0308518X17696071
https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/lucknow/communal-clash-in-lucknow-both-sides-open-fire/
http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20161202-indias-model-for-tolerance

4. Implications
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-30204806
https://www.ft.com/content/62e72d98-39a3-11e4-93da-00144feabdc0#axzz3KiXQFUmx
https://www.hlrn.org.in/documents/Housing_Discrimination_Study_by_ICSSR.pdf
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Emraan-Hashmi-cant-get-a-house-in-Pali-Hill/articleshow/4839633.cms
https://ahmedabadmirror.indiatimes.com/ahmedabad/civic/juhapura-set-to-get-1st-eng-medium-school/articleshow/70505877.cms
https://www.hindustantimes.com/india/in-gujarat-muslim-forced-to-sell-house-in-hindu-locality-report/story-mSFMP58MN1irrEUOVcq6XI.html
https://thewire.in/communalism/juhapura-ahmedabad-ghetto-muslims
http://www.equality-of-opportunity.org/assets/documents/mobility_geo.pdf
https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/the-juhapura-model/
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0308518X17696071
http://www.columbia.edu/~kk2432/segviolence0616.pdf

5. Puzzle
https://thewire.in/communalism/chand-bagh-delhi-riots-hindu-muslim
https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/kashmiri-pandit-exodus-sunanda-vashisht-1619180-2019-11-15
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xmGQdDol-nU
http://users.ox.ac.uk/~sfos0060/2011.pdf
https://www.group-violence.com/images/Dhattiwala_2016.pdf

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